Nickel allergy also referred to as Ni-ACD is a form of allergic contact dermatitis ACD caused by exposure to the chemical element nickel. Nickel allergy results in a skin response after the skin comes in contact with an item that releases a large amount of nickel contact allergy from its surface, and is commonly associated with nickel-containing belt buckles coming into prolonged contact with the skin.
Free released nickel that is able to penetrate the skin is taken up by scavenger dendritic cells and then presented to the immune system T-Cells. With each subsequent exposure to nickel these T cells become stimulated and duplicate clone themselves. The rash can present as acute, subacute, or chronic eczema-like skin patches, primarily at the site of contact with the nickel e. Three simultaneous conditions must occur to trigger Ni-ACD: Direct skin contact with nickel-releasing item. Prolonged skin contact with nickel-releasing item.
A sufficient amount of nickel is released and absorbed into the skin to cause a reaction. The pathophysiology is divided into induction elicitation phases. Induction is the critical phase immunological event when skin contact to nickel results in antigen presentation to the T cells, and Nickel contact allergy cell duplication cloning occurs. Nickel then binds to skin protein carriers creating an antigenic epitope.
The antigenic epitope is collected by dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cellsthe antigen-presenting cells APC of the skin, and undergo maturation and migration to anal cancer verses colon cancer lymph nodes. Although ACD has been considered a Th1 predominate process, recent studies highlight a more nickel contact allergy picture.
In Ni-ACD other cells are involved including: Josef Jadassohn described the first case of metal contact dermatitis into a mercurial-based therapeutic cream, nickel contact allergy, and confirmed the cause by epi-cutaneous patch testing. Systemic nickel allergy syndrome SNAS nickel contact allergy is extremely complex and not well understood.
The clinical course is determined by an immunological interplay between two diverse types of T cells Th1 and Sulfa drug allergy and msm responses. Published literature shows an exponential increase in reported nickel allergy cases. Nickel is a cheap and widely available core metal. Today, nickel contact allergy, it can be found in a wide variety of items including jewelry, zippers, buttons, belt buckles, coins, cell phones, guitar strings, tablets, surgical implants, and certain foods.
Nickel is present in a wide range of foods, in varying concentrations. Average daily-ingested intake of nickel is about micrograms. A few studies have shown that nickel-sensitive individuals orally given greater than 5, micrograms nickel as NiSO 4 as a single dose had a nickel ACD response. While such exposures are in excess of those encountered in normal diets, some researchers suggest amitriptyline in ointment work for vulvodynia dietary control of nickel intake may help in the ongoing treatment of nickel ACD caused by other sources.
These researchers have correctly identified foods high in nickel content e. Altace or lotrel the workplace, individuals may be exposed to significant amounts of nickel, airborne from the combustion of fossil fuelsor from contact with tools that are nickel-plated.
For example, nickel dermatitis was common in the past among nickel platers. Due to improved industrial and personal hygiene practices, however, over the past several decades, reports of nickel sensitivity in workplaces, such as the electroplating industry, have been sparse.
In the workplace, exposure reduction includes personal protection equipment and other risk management measures. Nickel allergy results in a skin response rash after the skin comes in direct and sustained contact with any item which releases a large amount of free nickel from its surface. The skin reaction can occur at the site of contact, or sometimes spread beyond to the rest of the body.
Cutaneous exposure can cause localized erythematouspruriticvesicularand scaly patches. Ingestion of nickel may cause a systemic reaction, that will affect a larger skin surface. Examples of systemic reactions can include hand dermatitisbaboon syndrome nickel contact allergy, or generalized eczematous reactions. Nickel has wide utility of application in manufactured metals, because it is both strong and malleable, leading to ubiquitous presence and the potential for consumers to be in contact with it daily.
However, nickel contact allergy, for those that have the rash of allergic contact dermatitis ACD due to a nickel allergy, it can be a challenge to avoid. Foods, common kitchen utensils, cell phones, jewelry and many other items may contain nickel and be a source of irritation due to the allergic reaction caused by the absorption of free released nickel through direct and prolonged contact. The most appropriate measure for nickel allergic persons is to prevent contact with the allergen.
Inresearchers showed that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin in vitro and on the skin of mice in vivo prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water, nickel contact allergy.
Approximately fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Pre-emptive avoidance strategies PEAS might ultimately lower the sensitization rates of children who would suffer from ACD  It is theorized that prevention of exposure to nickel early on could reduce the number of those that are sensitive to nickel by one-quarter to one-third.
Identification of the many sources of nickel is vital to understanding the nickel sensitization story, food like chocolate and fish, zippers, buttons, cell phones and even orthodontic braces and eyeglass frames might contain nickel. Items that contain sentimental nickel contact allergy heirlooms, wedding rings could be treated with an enamel or rhodium plating. Sensitized individuals may check product labels or contact the manufacturer or retailer regarding possible nickel content.
These resources provide guidance in a prevention initiative for children worldwide. Nickel allergy can be confirmed by a properly trained health care provider based on the medical history, physical exam and a painless specialized patch test — when necessary. A significant number of people may self-diagnose, and not contact medical professionals, nickel contact allergy, which could result in massive underreporting of the problem by scientific researchers.
The patch test evokes a delayed, Type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which is a cell-mediatedantibody independent, immune response. Patch testing is the "gold standard" diagnostic tool for Ni-ACD. It does not necessarily indicate that the patch reaction is the cause of the current clinical disease.
A negative test demonstrates that the patient is sub-threshold, either minimally or not sensitized. Cumulatively, clinical reasoning and a patch test help determine if nickel could be the cause of a current dermatitis reaction. Once a nickel allergy is detected, the best treatment is avoidance of nickel-releasing items.
The top 13 categories that contain nickel include beauty nickel contact allergy, eyeglasses, money, cigarettes, clothes, kitchen and household, electronics and office equipment, metal utensils, aliment, jewelry, batteries, orthodontic and dental appliances, and medical equipment.
The first step is to limit friction between skin and nickel contact allergy items. Another option is to shield electronics, metal devices, and tools with fabric, plastic, akron general health and wellness acrylic coverings. There are test kits that can be very helpful to check for nickel release from items prior to purchasing, nickel contact allergy.
As nickel can be harmful to skin, its use in daily products must be regulated. A safety directive has been in place in Europe since InDenmark and then shortly after the European Union EU enacted legislation that limited the amount of free nickel in consumer products that come in contact with the skin. This resulted in significantly decreased rates of sensitization among Danish children 0 to 18 years of age from No such directive exists in the United States, nickel contact allergy, but efforts are under way to mandate safe use guidelines for nickel.
Nickel contact allergy, current estimates gauge that roughly 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, nickel contact allergy.
The Western Journal of Medicine. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. The Journal of Dermatology, nickel contact allergy.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. International Journal of Dermatology. Journal of Chemical Education, nickel contact allergy. Relationships between age, sex, history of exposure, and reactivity to standard patch tests and use tests in a general population".
Chemical Research in Toxicology. Nickel and Human Health". The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. Contact, Atopic, Occupational, Drug, nickel contact allergy. The British Journal of Dermatology. American Academy of Dermatology, nickel contact allergy. Retrieved from " https: CS1 German-language sources de Infobox medical condition new Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Views Read Edit View history.